Condenser Coil

How do Air Conditioners work? and the role of Condenser Coil in its function.

Air conditioners use the refrigeration method to cool the indoor air through a remarkable method of phase conversion which converts liquid to gas absorbing all the heat. Air conditioners use this method of phase conversion by forcing the chemical compounds to evaporate and condense continuously at a closed system of coils.

These involved compounds are refrigerants which have the capacity to change at relatively low temperature. Air conditioners have fans which move hot air over the cold refrigerated coils.

Working Principle of AC

When warm air flows through cold, low pressure evaporator coils the refrigerant inside sucks up the heat changing it from liquid to gaseous state. For keeping the room cool the air conditioner again converts the refrigerant gas to liquid. To do that the compressor keeps the gas under high pressure and unwanted heat is created in this process. Then this is blown outdoor with the help of another set of coils known as condenser coils and second fan. As the gas cools it changes back to liquid and the process starts again. This is an endless process until the air conditioner is switched off. That’s not all it does. It also monitors and regulates the temperature automatically through Thermostat. This thermostat turns off the air conditioner automatically when the room becomes chilled. With the room temp going up, the thermostat starts the air conditioner until the preferred ambient temperature is achieved again. They also have a filter which cleans the airborne particles circulating in the air.

Air conditioners act as dehumidifiers because temperature helps to remove humidity which releases moisture, so drains and pipes are present to collect the water discharged from air conditioners when they are operated in humid days.

Different Parts of Air Conditioner

These major parts help to manage the refrigerants and move the air indoor and outdoor.

  1. Evaporator: Receives liquid refrigerant.
  2. Condenser: Allows heat to transfer.
  3. Expansion: Valve: Controls the flow of refrigerant in the evaporator
  4. Compressor: A pump that suppresses refrigerants

The evaporator and a fan are on the cold side of the and blows air over chilled coils and inside the room. The hot side contains the compressor, condenser and another fan which blows out the unwanted heat from the refrigerant. In between the 2 coils there is an expansion valve. It checks the control of the gas which enters into the evaporator coil. The compressor is electric pump that helps the refrigerant gas to change into liquid. There are many valves and coils but these are the main components of air conditioners.

What is a condenser?

The condenser is a device that is used to transform a substance from gaseous to the liquid state by cooling it. 

Importance of Condenser Coils

Refrigerant is the basic element for air conditioning, which is converted into a liquid state by the compressor, taking the heat of the room in a gaseous state. This entire process is called a refrigerant cycle. This process is mainly divided into 4 parts:

  1. Compression: The gas is converted into a high-pressure hot liquid through pressure.
  2. Condensation: High-pressure hot liquid refrigerants are passed through the compression process and through condensation coils, where it dissipates heat in the surrounding air.
  3. Expansion valve: The valve that converts high-pressure liquid into low-pressure liquid is also known as an expansion valve.
  4. Evaporation: The low-pressure liquid refrigerant again undergoes the process of evaporation in the evaporator coil to convert from liquid to gaseous state where it draws the heat available in the room. The process of evaporation takes place in the indoor unit while all other processes take place in the outdoor unit (as in the case of split AC).

The use of the condenser coil is to absorb the high pressure gas from compressor and change it into liquid. This is actually done from the principle of thermodynamics in which the heat is transferred from a warm place to cooler place. The condenser coil absorbs the heat from the air passing through it making the gas condense and passing the condenser coolant inside the room.

The refrigerant in the condenser coil gets evaporated and is converted from liquid to gas. During the compression process through condenser coils the heat is dissipated in the surrounding through the exhaust fans.

There are two types of coils inside the Air Conditioner(AC) which are connected to condensers. One of the coils are hot and another one is cold. The chemicals inside the coil goes through evaporation and solubalization which helps the coils to remain cool.

Due to this the cool air comes out and the excess water gets evaporated which helps the coil to keep cool. The rest water escapes from the Air Conditioner from the drainage pipes. Rust can damage the condenser coils which would lead to leakage. Thus, it’s important to protect the coil from further rust damage.


Condenser Coils are placed in the outdoor unit where they face harsh climate, so it is necessary to take proper care. It should be frequently cleaned for better performance. Definitely they are durable and easy to clean. Also, the aluminum coils are not so strong, so they are kept in heavy duty cabinet and they are difficult to clean.

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