Coronavirus is now no more an unfamiliar term for the World. The 2019-2020 Coronavirus pandemic, a global outbreak when first came in light at Wuhan (Hubei), China was not known to be such hazardous as it had reached now. It was identified by the health organizations at Wuhan, China, and later on, March 11th 2020, got recognized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). The first country which is known to get affected by this serve virus outbreak, has reportedly faced 81,008 cases till March 20th 2020. With the maximum number of infected cases, China has faced 3,255 number of deaths till now due to this global pandemic outbreak.
As of March 20th(the time this article was written) World has reported 290,672 corona virus-infected cases with the total number of 12,738 deaths and 88,465 recoveries. With the rapid spread of the Coronavirus pandemic, Europe is its new known Epicentre. The Virus primarily spread between human beings like an infectious disease through respiratory droplets from sneezing and coughing. Commonly shown symptoms include cough, cold, short of breath and fever. It takes typically five to fourteen days for exposure to symptoms development on an individual. Some common health complications may include acute respiratory disorder symptoms (ARDS) and pneumonia. This rapidly spreading virus disease is the latest World Epidemic situation.
During December 2019 a sudden cluster of few pneumonia cases was reported in Wuhan, China. On January 2020, an investigation got launched to study the leading cause of this Coronavirus (Covid-19). Almost the 2/3rd very first cases got linked to the Huanan Seafood Market (Wholesale animal market) in the Jiangnan District, Wuhan, Hubei, China. Though the very first person reported (on December 1st 2019) with the symptoms of this Virus did not have any connection with the then later cluster of the seafood market. However, a Chinese publication “South China Morning Post” printed a report stating that on November 17th 2019 a 54-year-old person from Hubei could be the first person who contracted the disease.
The Covid-19 growth
The Covid-19 is thought to get originated from the zoonotic origin, horseshoe bats and pangolins. The Virus that caused this outbreak was known as SARS-COV-2 and is believed to be originated through the family of bats or pangolins.
China being the Epicentre of this widely spread Virus, has reportedly been the maximum effected country all over the World. Though the World Health Organization (WHO) on February 26th reported an increased outbreak in Italy, Iran, Spain and Germany while dropped several new cases in China. With several deaths, and the worst of situations faced China has now witnessed a slowdown in new cases, deaths with increased recoveries. However, there are very much said chances of under-reporting cases in many parts of the World.
Coronavirus – Signs and Symptoms
The uncommon symptoms during the first stage are reported as headache, congestion, coughing, shortness of breath, sore throat, while the common ones are fever, dry cough and fatigue. Further development in case of severe disease can lead to high temperature, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), decreased white blood cells, blood coughing, sepsis, septic shock, kidney failure and even deaths. Some of those individuals those have infected (tested positive) may be asymptomatic, show no clinical infection symptoms are advised to maintain a closed social contact and must get closely medically monitored and examined until the infection rules out.
The standard incubation period range between one to fourteen days (most commonly five days). Though in a few cases it has led to an incubation period of 25-27 days.
Way of transmission
The primary transmission mode of Covid-19 is via respiratory droplets during coughing and sneezing. These respiratory droplets stay in the air for only a short time being at 21-23 degree Celsius and 65% RH. However, it may remain contagious on a plastic surface, metal, glass or anything having more mass than a piece of paper. Similar to the other corona Viruses (SARS and MERCS) the Covid-19 can survive up to 3 days or more on any surface around. The Covid-19 being comparable to other coronaviruses similarly may end up surviving up to 9 days in the room temperature.
Apart from the transmission through the respiratory droplets, an individual coming in contact with the Virus contaminated object, when touching his/her face with the same infection carrying hands may end up getting infected with the Virus. As reported by WHO, the risk of virus transmission from someone without symptoms (but tested positive) is comparatively quite low than people with mild or high symptoms.
The Severe acute respiratory syndrome-Corona Virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel virus that has isolated a lot of population of the World. The diagnosis of this Virus is primarily made through the basis of symptoms followed with confirmation by a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and CT imaging. These tests are performed on blood and respiratory droplet samples, followed by a result generation within a few hours to a few days. The result generation time varies from country to country.
Prevention and Precaution measures
Currently, the only way or method to stay safe from the coronavirus outbreak is by taking proper precautions. These precaution measures include overall personal hygiene, frequent handwashing while coming in contact with an outer surface, using hand sanitizers when needed, maintaining a certain distance with infected individuals, and avoiding touching face with unwashed hands.
People who are already infected with the Virus have been advised to wear a surgical mask, use tissues while coughing and sneezing, followed with disposing of those tissues directly in a closed dustbin. A social distancing act is advised to both infected and secured as a precautionary measure to prevent the transmission of this severe virus disease.
Coronavirus has now reached the stage of community spread in more than 50% part of the World. As a precaution measure, many governments have restricted international travels mainly from the most infected countries. Visa from such known countries has sudden been cancelled until no definite time in future. The Health Authorities of the infected countries have quarantine all known infected individuals to prevent any further transmission.
Corona Virus – The World update
More than 50% of the World is currently facing an Epidemic which is not seen to end very soon. With almost no cure available, yet hundreds of lives are lost each day and are increasing with no break. Few of the countries, including China, USA, and Iran, have tried and tested vaccines with no success as of now. It is said that the first successful Covid-19 vaccine might take 18 months for development and trial.
The early-stage (light cough and cold) of the SARS-CoV-2 is not at all dangerous and cured through basic pneumonia medicines like paracetamol and similar other. However, the later stages are supremely hazardous and have led to a number of deaths. Many countries have tried various other vaccines such as Remune dosing and Malaria Vaccine (RTS, S/A SO1) to reduce COVID-19 duration. However, there is no success reported yet.
The only way of preventing more spread of this severe outbreak includes maintaining personal hygiene, wearing mask and self-isolation (for the people infected), cancelling of social gathering and mass events, closing all possible public interference places such as schools, colleges, malls, local market, historical monuments, hill stations and so on. These non-pharmaceutical prevention measures are playing a vital role in countries like India, South Africa, Argentina and Vietnam.
The current Epicentre of COVID-19, Italy on January 31st 2020 witnessed its first few cases when two Chinese tourists in Rome found positive for SARS-COV-2. As an immediate response, the Italian government announced a state of emergency and cancelled all the flights from China.
Latest Coronavirus table update
Corona Virus – India update
With all precautionary measures followed way before the first reported COVID-19 case, India has now reached a total number of 294 infected individuals. Not perfect but India has done a reasonably good job with most counts. Airport screening, public awareness, flight cancellation from various countries, work from home at multiple companies and government organizations, public place sanitization and a lot more. However, with this much precautionary measures, a mass explosion of Virus spread is still not well equipped to get handled by India. A lack of resources on virus testing facilities might not be a reasonable effort in the near future.
Similar to turkey, one of the best measures is mass testing which India and other countries should soon adapt. As Turkey, despite sharing its border with Iran (one of the profoundly affected country) has reported only two coronavirus deaths so far. Countries and territories that have been able to control a level so far have scaled up their testing process. Apart from governments actions, all the citizens too should behave responsibly in the manner to protect every other being around them. The ones infected must surrender to the government made quarantine or once who have a travel history to any of the infected countries within 15-20 days should opt self-isolation. Also, the infected ones should avoid any public contact and invest in the well-being of society.
Corona Virus is growing more dangerous than a world war situation, and we all citizens should stay aware and awake about it. Also, we should stop spreading any rumour in terms of COVID-19 and let aware the ones who might not know this hazardous situation.
To fight Coronavirus we should be keeping our hand clean and face covered.
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